A Buddhist is simply one who accepts the four seals and lives accordingly. These four seals, discovered by Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince whose father tried to protect him from everything bad. He discovered death anyway, which led him to embark on a thoughtful pursuit of how to fix the problem of death that resulted in these four discoveries about the nature of reality:
- All compounded things are impermanent
- All emotions are pain
- All things have no inherent existence
- Nirvana is beyond concepts
Part of the problem is that all emotions are pain. We have many desires, yet they are all unfulfillable, because everything is impermanent (and even worse, they do not even really exist). The author gives many examples of how we chase after happiness: we think we will be fulfilled through a relationship, our career, having a family, the security that money appears to buy, the things that money can buy, etc. In fact, what we think happiness may change depending on our stage of life: having kids when we don’t have them, having them out of the house when we do. Ascetism is not the solution, it is just going to an extreme. The problem is that we are consumed with ourselves, but that is ignorance: there is no “self” since we are just an assembly of smaller things. Thus, emotions are pain because they distract us from the truth and encourage us to live as if things really are permanent.
Yet, since all things are compounded, nothing has inherent existence. Emptiness is the only reality, since emptiness cannot be composed of multiple things. Thus what we perceive as reality is just an illusion. It is relative to us, it is not absolute; only emptiness is absolute. One consequence of this fact that everything is emptiness is that there is no big or small, great or worthless. The author gives a good illustration: two Tibetan monks we walking in empty grassland when it started to rain. There was no trees or shelter of any kind, so the older monk took shelter in an empty yak’s horn. The horn did not become larger, nor did the monk become smaller. He called to the younger monk that there was still space, but the younger monk was not able to join him because he did not comprehend the reality that everything is emptiness.
Finally, nirvana is beyond concepts. It is not happiness; Buddhists do not seek happiness, they follow the path that brings freedom from pain: the realization that all compounded things are impermanent, and as such, do not really exist. Enlightenment is beyond feelings, time, self, etc. When you truly understand that everything is impermanent, including yourself, it does not matter whether you are happy, it does not matter if someone praises you or not; it is all emptiness. That is simply ignorance, from which you were enlightened, and you are now free to compassionately help others realize the truth (everyone has the buddha-nature, the ability to become enlightened). Note that since nirvana is beyond concepts, eventually you need to leave the four seals; it, and the Buddhist practices, are simply the path to lead you there, but they are not enlightenment itself.
This next comment may seem rather random, but as I was reading this, I was struck by how very Buddhist the movie The Matrix is its outlook. In fact, this book made the movie make sense. It also made sense of the seemingly contradictory Buddhist statements, such as the one in the movie: “Do not try to bend the spoon, that’s impossible. Instead, try to realize the truth ... that there is no spoon.” The matrix is not real, and we are trapped in it by our own ignorance in thinking that it is real. In reality, nothing in the matrix really exists. Thus, when Neo realizes this, he is no longer bound by the matrix, and is able to break the rules. Like the monk, he is not bound by biggness or smallness, or in Neo’s case, gravity, speed, or strength.
Despite Buddhism and Christianity have very opposing views of reality, both have very similar views on the nature of the problem. Christianity says that the essence of humanity is a relationship with the God who created us for this relationship. We were designed for this relationship and apart from it we cannot function (just as a car designed for gasoline cannot run on diesel fuel, not matter how much it might want to). Sin is ultimately us living for ourselves, trying to satisfy our desires our way, instead of letting God fulfill them. Just as Buddhists see our hedonistic living for our own satisfaction as the problem, so Christianity also sees our living for our own satisfaction as the problem. In fact, as I have matured in my relationship with God, I have seen more and more how my desiring my own happiness is the fundamental self-worship that the Bible calls “sin.” I have even seen how it is pain: I want, but do not or cannot have. On this we agree: Buddhists would say that my love of myself is the cause of my pain.
However, the prescriptions given by Buddhism and Christianity are very different, because the underlying worldviews are very different. Buddhism says that all compounded things are impermanent and therefore not real; the only reality is emptiness and that realizing this is the solution. Christianity says that God is not compounded, and all compounded things were made by God, and that they have no inherent life apart from God. It says that we were made for Him, and that our abandoning Him to love ourselves is both foolish and also an affront to God (because all God’s arrows point out; all our arrows point in, to ourselves, and so we now have a character and essential value that is opposed to God and that is destructive). To fix this problem, Christ, God, paid the punishment for our idolatrous self-love, and invites us to return to Him, to trust that He will provide for the needs that He created us with. Reality is not emptiness, and if we accept the invitation, reality can be relationship. Instead of emptiness, God offers us fullness. Interestingly, the Bible describes the results of this in us similarly to the results of the four seals: when we can trust God to fulfill our needs, we can stop seeking ourselves, we can be freely generous; our arrows will begin pointing outward, just like God’s. However, there is still one big difference: the Christian ends up with a fulfilling relationship from which this love and generosity flows, but the Buddhist ends up with emptiness. (Actually, if Christianity is true, the Buddhist probably ends up in an eternity in Hell, being trapped with all his arrows pointing inwards in opposition to the character of the loving God)
I also think that Buddhism, at least as described in the book, has two major logical errors. First, from a logical standpoint, change does not necessarily imply impermanence. Logically, something could be constantly changing, yet never cease to exist. Thus, it is possible that God as described in the Bible can exist: He experiences the reality He has made, and he also sometimes changes His actions based on our requests and our obedience or disobedience, so he changes, but logically, He can be permanent as He claims to be. Second, while we are impermanent, even if the reality we experience is wrong, it does not imply that reality can be whatever we make it. It is logically possible (and consistent with experience) that we share a reality. If we do share a (incorrect) reality, we cannot necessarily break the rules of that reality: if we are embedded in a shared reality, presumably we are also bound by it, and logically, the bond is not necessarily breakable just because we have a new understanding.
However, this is definitely a good introduction to Buddhism, and I would recommend it for anyone interested in understanding Buddhism (or for the kind of people who think they are Buddhist because they like the values of nonviolence and of being kind to living things). The author gives the thought process behind the truth claims of the four Buddhist seals, gives many illustrations of how we do not live as Buddhists, and what Buddhist life looks like if these seals are true and we live by them.
The author gives an explanation of the seals in a way that is very understandable to modern ears. He gives a great many examples that demonstrate how we are living for ourselves, and he gives a clear explanation of the consequences of the Buddhist truth claims. He also uses good teaching practices, such as constantly repeating the four seals, so that by the end of the book, the reader is sure to have remembered them.
- To be a Buddhist one must accept the following four “seals”:
- All compounded things (things made of two or more sub-things) are impermanent
- All emotions are pain
- All things have no inherent existence
- Nirvana is beyond concepts
- Ch. 1: Fabrication and impermanence
- We distract ourselves from the fact of death by pleasures
- We think that, despite all the not-fully-fulfilledness of everything we have attained, that true happiness is available. So we live on an endless treadmill of sacrificing today for a tomorrow that will not fulfil.
- Everything composed of sub-parts is impermanent. Everything is interconnected, so everything changes; anything
that changes is impermanent.
- “Through these realizations, Siddhartha found a way around the suffering of mortality after all. He accepted that change is inevitable and that death is just a part of this cycle. Furthermore, he realized that there was no almighty power who could reverse the path to death; therefore there was also no hope to trap him. If there is no blind hope, there is also no disappointment. If one knows that everything is impermanent, one does not grasp, and if one does not grasp, one will not think in terms of having or lacking, and therefore one lives fully.” (p. 16)
- God must be within time: since the universe was created, there must be a point in time which it was not created. If God is within time, then he changes. If he changes, then he is impermanent, “in other words subject to uncertainty and unreliable.” (p. 18)
- Impermanence is good news, because it means our situation can
be changed. Hopelessness is believing in impermanence: the
situation cannot be changed.
- Ch. 2: Emotion and Pain
- To a buddhist, “What is the meaning of life?” is a meaningless question. You can ask “what is life?” (“a collection of assembled, and therefore, impermanent, things”).
- Asserts that we all want to be happy, but then gives many examples that demonstrate that happiness varies from person to person and time of life, may be completely opposite from someone else, one being’s happiness may be in another being’s suffering, etc.
- Asceticism is not the answer, it is an extreme.
- All emotions are pain, we should seek to not have them because they distract us from the truth that everything is impermanent and encourage us to live as if things are permanent.
- The problem is that we are consumed with self (gives many examples). But the reality is that there is no self (we are just assembled). There is also no evil, just ignorance.
- Ch. 3: Everything Is Emptiness
- Nothing is actually real (it is just made up of compounded things). What we perceive as reality is an illusion. So reality is relative to us, it is not absolute. Emptiness is the only reality. It is outside of time.
- Because everything is emptiness, there is no big, small, great,
and worthless. For example, two Tibetan monks were travelling and
it started to rain heavily. There was nothing on the plain but
grass and a yak’s horn. The older monk took shelter in the yak’s
horn, without him becoming smaller or the yak’s horn becoming
larger. He called to the younger monk that there was still space,
if only he could realize that everything was emptiness.
- Buddhists can still enjoy the world, but they recognize that it is not real, it is really an illusion.
- The dharma (the teachings of Buddha) are a way to bring people to realize that everything is emptiness. It is not the the path that is important, it is the destination. So Buddhist hell does not exist, althought it is taught that way to people who cannot understand the deeper truth. One could consider that hell is really simply when we are trapped in the pain caused from thinking that we actually exist.
- “It is not the appearance that binds you, it is the attachment to the appearance that binds you.”
- When you understand that everything is emptiness, you are
freed, because you won’t expect that things are real, that things will
satisfy you, and so you won’t be disappointed. You are no longer
enslaved to vainly trying to satisfy your desires. You become
like an adult who is no longer interested in children’s games.
- Ch. 4: Nirvana is Beyond Concepts
- We think that Heaven is basically like our current state, only things work out better. Unfortunately, because we live forever, there is no way out. It is not better, because we are stuck knowing that everything is emptiness, but not being able to escape.
- The goal is not happiness or lack of unhappiness: Buddha visited his cousin Nanda who, he and his wife spent all day love-making. He took the cousin to see a gnarled she-monkey, and asked who was more beautiful, the monkey or his wife. He said his wife, obviously. Gautama then took him to a heaven where he saw goddesses and wealth and an empty throne. He asked a goddess who the throne was for, and she answered “there is on earth a man named Nanda who will become a monk and earn much merit and end up here where we will serve him.” The goddesses were so beautiful that his wife was like a she-monkey in comparison, so he instantly became a monk. Buddha told the other monks to shun him, because they were not interested in the same things. He wanted happiness, they were looking for enlightenment. Nanda complained about loneliness to Gautama, who took him to a hell region were demons were boiling a cauldron. He asked a demon what the cauldron was for, and he said “there is on earth a monk named Nanda, who will go to a heavenly realm because of his merit, but because he will stop seeking merit, it will become exhausted and he will fall into this cauldron and we will boil him.” At which point he realized that happiness was not the thing to be sought.
- Nirvana is not happiness, it is peace, freedom from delusion and confusion.
- Enlightenment is not a feeling, it is not happiness, it is
outside of time, emotions, etc. Buddha did not care whether
someone praised him or not; it did not matter. It is not
that the monk in the yak horn is omnipotent or magical or something, it
is that there is actually no big or small.
- Our true nature is like a wineglass. Inherently it has no dirt or fingerprints, but it accumulates them. If we wash them off, its true nature is re-revealed. Likewise with us: love and compassion reveal the true buddha-nature within us (dim though it may be).
- Because we are so accustomed to the habits of living for
self, we may think that we cannot become enlightened. This is
incorrect, we all have the buddhanature within us; we can all
- However, it is incorrect to say that we can wash off our dirt (although that may be helpful for the naive person). Instead, we learn that everything is emptiness, and then we stop indulging ourselves and seeking happiness.
- Love and compassion are the safest way to removing ignorance.
- Four seals:
- “As an example of the first seal—impermanence—consider generosity. When we begin to realize the first truth, we see everything as transitory and without value, as if it belonged in a Salvation Army donation bag. We don’t necessarily have to give it all away, but we have no clinging to it. When we see that or possessions are all impermanent compounded phenomena, that we cannot cling to them forever, generosity is already practically accomplished.” (p. 111)
- “Understanding the second seal, that all emotions are pain, we see that the miser, the self, is the main culprit, providing nothing but a feeling of poverty. Therefore by not clinging to the self, we find no reason to cling to our possessions, and there is no more pain of miserliness. Generosity becomes an act of joy.” (p. 111)
- “Realizing the third seal, that all things have no inherent existence, we see the futility of clinging because whatever we are clinging to has no truly existing nature. It’s like dreaming that you are distributing a billion dollars to strangers on the street. You can give generously because it’s dream money, and yet you are able to reap all the fun of the experience. Generosity based on these three views inevitably makes us realize that there is no goal. It is not a sacrifice endured in order to get recognition or to ensure a better rebirth.” (p. 111-112)
- Karma is the consequences of actions. However, karma is
not Siddhartha’s path. Likewise, the buddhist practices, while
helpful, are also not the path. The path is the four seals.